Books & Supplies

Required Text, References and Materials 

It is essential that the student acquires and reads the RMPI Suggested books or those recommended by most pedothic educator/schools. Those with extensive clinical experience may require fewer study tools.  With the Pedorthic Footwear Association membership, these materials may be purchased at a discount. It is not unreasonable to spend 40-80 hours reading these books prior to taking the ABC exam. There will also be individual reading assignments for the Pre-Certification course assigned by the instructor during the Pre-certification course as well as any additional courses that the student enrolls in with the RMPI such as Advanced Applied Biomechanics.


PFA Bookstore (Order your books early, to avoid back order delays)

Please visit the PFA USA or Canada Bookstores for recommended Pedorthic Certification study materials

PFA USA Bookstore link:
PFA Canada Bookstore link:
Oklahoma State University - Okmulgee campus (which may be a faster turn-a-round).
Oklahoma's bookstore link is:


RMPI Suggested Minimum Study Requirements

1) Introduction To Pedorthics (suggestd but not mandatory to perform RMPI workbook) or Contemporary Pedorthics (used in RMPI workbook)

     Note: Introduction To Pedorthics is excellent for beginner students. Contemporary Pedorthics is comprehensive; more for the intermediate student or upon completion of the Level 1 Online course, etc

2) Professional Shoe Fitting or When The Shoe Fits Video

3) Scope of Practice of ABC:


4) Code of Ethics of ABC:


5) Code of Professional Responsibility of ABC:


"What To Bring" to the Pedorthic Practicum Hands-on Course


Recommended buy not required:


RMPI Online Review Course - Always "Under Development" With New Study Materials To Enhance Different Learning Styles 

Please visit "Our Courses" Review - Note: Password Protected; no tuition charge to RMPI students.

Some of the items below are provided via our website link, others require the link to be placed within your web browser to gain access.


Further Information On Study Materials

Texts Required By Most Pedorthic Educator's/Schools (seasoned pedorthic candidates may not need all of these books):

RMPI Specialized Study Materials


Scope of Practice Treatment Modalities / Pathology Study Materials; excellent choices for those with no clinical experience:

Contemporary Pedorthics (may discourage beginner pedorthists due to vast information)

Foot Orthoses – Principles And Clinical Applications – Kent K. Wu, MD

Apex University on CD -


Biomechanical Theory – Post Certification – Advanced Study 

Root, Orien and Weed – Biomechanical Examination Of The Foot - Volume I

Clinical Biomechanics Of The Lower Extremity – Valmassy DPM

Compendium of Podiatric Biomechanics – California College Of Podiatric Medicine

Foot Orthoses And Other Forms Of Conservative Foot Care – Thomas Michaud DC

Normal And Abnormal Function Of The Foot - Root, Orien & Weed – Volume II


Used Books:

Estimated Cost for Materials 

Books, CD & Reference Materials will cost around $500-$700. For a current price list or to order your books you may call RMPI Learning Resource Center at (765) 557-7216 for questions. The PFA provides these books at a savings to the PFA Member. The RMPI does not have a large resource library to order expediently.


Applied Pedorthic Biomechanics - A Higher Level Of Understanding

Post ABC/BOC Exam

Consider the RMPI Level 4 Course

To Elevate Your Credentials, Knowledge Base And Enhance Patient Outcomes


The RMPI faculty members, adjunct faculty and volunteers are eager to enhance your educational experience of the science of biomechanics as it applies to the lower extremities. Furthermore, as committed health care professionals and academians, we are committed to continuing to exploring biomechanics, historically and futuristically.  By studying the evolution and timeline of published articles as educators, healthcare providers and students, we are able to begin understanding the complexities of the human foot. Through the evolution of mankind, individuals with various circumstances have been applying bandages, strapping, bracing materials and shoes as a means to protect, heal or align the human foot with the leg.

Dating back to Royal Whitman, MD, who in 1896, developed the first "flatfoot brace”, created from rigid metal with a theory that the human foot needed a firm foundation to support a collapsing arch. Over the years, leather was a popular material used for arch supports and foot inserts. By the 1950's, the various fields of science, medicine and academia along with podiatrists, orthopedists, anatomists and PhD's specializing in kinesiology sought to understand the complexities of the human foot. It was determined that this new specialty needed its own name versus being an offspring of Kinetics and Kinesiology, giving birth the Science of Biomechanics. It was through a multi-disciplinary approach, each discipline working parallel to one another that allowed insights into how muscles functioned, and most importantly, the timing mechanism of the muscles. As the axes of the feet were studied it was determined that muscles have their leverage and strength dependant upon where the muscle attached, where it's pulley system was located, how perpendicular the muscle and it's tendon was to the axis of the foot, and how many axes a particular muscle/tendon crossed over; giving the foot it's profound integrity to withstand forces and provide locomotion to the bi-pedal human. The published works of Inman PhD, MD, lead rise to many of the theories on human locomotion that are considered the foundation of biomechanical sciences.

During the 1950's, Merton Root, DPM, set forth on a mission. He was publicly quoted in the year of 1954 as saying "if within the next five years, I can not find the cause to the symptoms that I am seeing and develop a treatment that gives a more definitive result, I would leave the profession". Because of the contribution that Dr. Root and his associates, Dr's Orien and Weed made to podiatric medicine and allied health professions, he is known "as the Father of Podiatric Biomechanics". For the full text of this quote and the written publication please visit the link to the author William Eric Lee DPM BSc (Hons) SRCh Podiatric Biomechanics - A Historical Appraisal and Discussion of the Root Model as a Clinical System of Approach in the Present Context of Theoretical Uncertainty.

For additional reading on this subject:

Biomechanical Examination Of The Foot - Volume I - Root, Orien & Weed

Normal And Abnormal Function Of The Foot - Volume II - Root, Orien & Weed

Compendium of Podiatric Biomechanics – California College Of Podiatric Medicine - Thomas Scarlato DPM; for video interviews visit:

Gait & Posture - Verne Inman, MD -

Clinical Biomechanics Of The Lower Extremity – Valmassy DPM

Foot Orthoses – Principles And Clinical Applications – Kent K. Wu, MD "Highly Recommended For ABC/BOC Pre-Cert Exam)

Foot Orthoses And Other Forms Of Conservative Foot Care – Thomas Michaud DC

With a firm foundation established as the "root" to solving chronic and unresolved pathologies, when theorized, applied, and properly incorporated into a biomechanically engineered foot orthosis or lower extremity treatment modality, we can expect better patient outcomes. Dr. Root, understanding the locking mechanism of the midtarsal, allowing the foot to become a rigid lever for propulsion, introduced the world to Rohadur; a rigid thermoplastic. A material that would withstand body weight and mechanical forces applied to the foot. Eventually composites such as fiberglass and graphite were used which offered less weight and slimmer design for dress shoes and athletic shoes. While multi-density materials are widely used internationally in varying softness or firmness, it is through the biomechanical science that consumers, healthcare practitioners and manufacturers are able to develop products that provide comfort, stability, function and realignment of osseous (bone) and prevent musculoskeletal injuries to adolescents and adults.

The historical publications of medical literature, marking the evolution of the biomechanical sciences as it relates to foot typing, arch supports, inserts and foot orthoses has been provided below for your enlightenment. If you have any questions or would like to add published historical data to this document, please contact us at or email us at: With due respect, this list is a not a complete list of those who have contributed to the sciences.

  1. Anatomists first attempted classifications in the eighteenth century by describing foot characteristics of various races and cultures.
  2. The nineteenth century placed emphasis on the obvious flatfoot; with curiosity regarding the length of the second toe.
  3. By the twentieth century, countries were beginning to foot type based upon country, place of birth and even religion and another attempt to classify feet by occupation.
  4. Royal Whitman, MD - Author; Developed the first developmental flat foot brace (foot orthotic) made of metal (1896)
  5. Military Surgeons established a first, second and third degree flatfoot rating (1919)
  6. The major developments in the early twentieth century were in the development of force plates and the understanding of kinetics. The team headed by Verne Inman (1905–1980) and Howard Eberhart (1906–1993) made major advances in America shortly after the Second War. David Sutherland (1923–2006) and Jacquelin Perry pioneered clinical applications in America and Jurg Baumann (1926–2000) in Europe. It was not until the advent of modern computers that clinical gait analysis became widely available.
  7. The Hiss Classification was the first, intelligent, clear, logical and honest attempt at classification. (1949); and set into motion, contemporary methods which allows consideration of midtarsal joint position and motion and resulted in classifying the foot into hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot.
  8. Dr.’s Root, Orien & Weed – Authors; are known as the “Founders of Podiatric Biomechanics” (1950’s); incorporated rigid plastics into foot orthotic design; following the lead of Royal Whitman, MD.; and discouraged the usage of flexible materials. Much controversy exists today; but biomechanically; the foot needs a firm foundation to support it.
  9. Superfeet Worldwide LLC – Develops the first rearfoot posted biomechanical insert/orthosis for the retail market (1977)
  10. Richard Lundeen, DPM - Author / Patent: Triaxial Posting; published the Dual Axis Integrated Functional Foot Orthosis (the founder of intrinsic rearfoot posting – 1977)
  11. Langer Biomechanics Group - Patent: Dannanberg Kinetic Wedge Posting (1980’s)
  12. Richard  Blake, DPM – developed the Blake Inverted; posting the foot 25 – 50 degrees inverted for chronic, unresolved pathologies (1981-1983)   Spenco compared to Blake Inverted Orthoses:
  13. Ronald Valmassy, DPM, MS - Author / published 9 foot types (1986); Clinical Biomechanics Of The Lower Extremity
  14. Kevin Kirby, DPM, MS - Author, popularized medial heel skiving and thus termed this technique the Kirby Skive (a method of creating intrinsic posting within an orthosis; applied to the positive cast; originally described within a heel cup, in the 1900’s) (1992)
  15. Dennis Shavelson, DPM and Liz Henry PT - Author / patent: 16 foot types; patent: Foot Centring (TBD)
  16. KLM Laboratories, California (& perhaps others) develop "Library Systems" developing pre-fabricated custom orthoses
  17. Roberta Nole, MS, PT, C.Ped - Author / published 24 foot types; patent pending: 24 Quad System; Copyright: 24 Foot Types The first pre-fabricated forefoot posted, biomechanically oriented insert/orthosis for the retail or allied health market place; also incorporating hindfoot posting for specific foot types.


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